Instead of having every device connected to an access point establish a VPN connection, I wanted to have an access point which maintains an OpenVPN connection and tunnels all the traffic through. As an OpenWRT
n00b, I am writing this post for myself, in case I forgot how I succeeded!
- Get your hands on a router supporting OpenWrt
- Copy all files (except
README.md) in this gist under
/etc/configof your router
- Add your VPN credentials under
/etc/openvpn/pia.authand your certificate authority (CA) and certificate revocation list (CRL) respectively under
- reboot and be happy
The big picture is to configure the router so it tunnels all the web traffic of its clients through VPN. For this we will define a virtual network device which is used by OpenVPN to tunnel the data and will force all the traffic going through the router to be channeled through this interface.
I used to have dd-wrt installed on my good old Linksys WRT54GL and it nearly always did everything I wanted. But then I got to know OpenWRT developers and professional users and decided to switch to it, mainly for the following reasons:
- OPKG package manger: just like any other package manager that one might know on linux, the OpenWRT package manager makes it pretty easy to install everything needed.
- Unified Configuration Interface: this is one big plus for OpenWRT! Instead of trying to locate configuration files of different programms and getting to know the synstax, the UCI introduces a unified syntax for all configuration files (located under
It was also important to have a familiar environment (i.e. *nix) for rapid development.
In the following it is assumed that the router is connected via LAN and all commands are run in OpenWRT environment. You can establish an SSH connection as follows:
ssh email@example.com # OR even better ssh root@openwrt
The only package that is required is the
openvpn. The name may vary depending on the OpenWRT version, but it can easily be found out by running the following command:
opkg search *openvpn*
and installed as follows:
opkg update # make sure we are updated! opkg install openvpn
Configure: The Interface
First an interface is defined which acts as the virual network device used by OpenVPM to tunnel the traffic. To do so the following lines are to be added to
config interface 'pia' option ifname 'tun1366' option proto 'none'
this creates the
tun1366 virtual network device which is referred to as
pia in other configuration files (see bellow). An example of network configuration is given here (you might need to read the rest to understand it better).
Now we want to have the traffic of router clients to be tunneled through the interface defined in previous section through VPN. This looks like a job for OpenVPN package installed earlier.
One bad idea is to create an
.ovpn configuration file and start the OpenVPN service manually as follows:
openvpn --config client.ovpn
The better (and idiomatic) approach is to create an OpenVPN configuration under
/etc/config/openvpn. I have created a configuration file for PIA clients which can be downloaded here. This script starts when router is booted.
The OpenVPN authentication credentials are to be stored under
/etc/openvpn/pia.auth in the following format
You also need to have the certificate authority (CA) file and certificate revocation list (CRL) respectively available under
/etc/openvpn/pia.crl.pem (For PIA, you can download them here)
Preventing DNS leaks
Unfortunately OpenWRT does not update the DNS servers (see
/tmp/resolv.conf.auto) after connecting to VPN and still uses the name servers given by DHCP server of
wan interface. If DNS requests are not routed through the DNS servers of the VPN provider but of the ISP, the anonymity is simply compromised.
There are a number of ways in OpenWRT to use custom DNS servers. The one that worked for me without any complications was to disable
wan interfaces and instead manually set
dns servers for
lan to PIA’s dns servers (
18.104.22.168). These changes can be seen in the example configuration given here
Internet Kill Switch
The PIA Android application has a nifty feature called the “Internet Kill Switch”:
The internet kill switch activates VPN disconnect protection. If you disconnect from the VPN, your internet access will stop working. It will reactivate normal internet access when you deactivate the kill switch mode or exit the application.
We are going to have the same feature by configuring the firewall in a manner that forwards all the traffic on
pia (instead of
wan) which in turn causes the rejection of all requests if OpenVPN connection is not established.
First thing is to define a zone in
/etc/config/firewall for the
pia interface we defined earlier:
config zone option name pia option network 'pia' option input REJECT option output ACCEPT option forward REJECT option masq 1 option mtu_fix 1
and the last step is to change the default
wan) so that all
lan traffic goes through
config forwarding option src lan option dest pia
Having your traffic tunneled through VPN has, beside anonymity, a number of advantages. In Germany, for example, the Internet providers are not hold liable for any mishandling or copyright infringement of their users (see here for more info). So, for example, if you want to provide Internet access at your shop but doesn’t want to take responsibility for your customers surfing, you can just tunnel your traffic through VPN since the traffic is then technically going through another telecommunication service provider instead of your ISP. This has led some companies to register themselves as “telecommunication service providers” and let their customers have their traffic tunneled through their VPN servers against some amount of money. Using the method provided in this article you just need a router supporting OpenWRT and a VPN subscription (e.g. PIA as cheap as ~ 4$/month) to have the same effect with just a fraction of what you would pay those companies!